Cost of Maintenance

Cost of Maintenance

Chapter 4 Systems Planning and Selection 82 Identifying and Selecting Projects 84

The Process of Identifying and Selecting Information Systems Development Projects 84

Deliverables and Outcomes 87

Initiating and Planning Systems Development Projects 88

The Process of Initiating and Planning Systems Development Projects 88

Deliverables and Outcomes 89

Assessing Project Feasibility 90

Assessing Economic Feasibility 92

Assessing Other Feasibility Concerns 98

Building the Baseline Project Plan 99

Reviewing the Baseline Project Plan 105

Pine Valley Furniture WebStore: Systems Planning and Selection 108

Internet Basics 108

Pine Valley Furniture WebStore 110

Key Points Review 113 Key Terms Checkpoint 114 Review Questions 116 Problems and Exercises 116 Discussion Questions 117 Case Problems 117 Case: Petrie’s Electronics 119


Chapter 5 Determining System Requirements 122 Performing Requirements Determination 124

The Process of Determining Requirements 124

Deliverables and Outcomes 125

Requirements Structuring 126

Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements 126

Interviewing and Listening 126

Directly Observing Users 131

Analyzing Procedures and Other Documents 132

Modern Methods for Determining System Requirements 135

Joint Application Design 136

Using Prototyping during Requirements Determination 139

Radical Methods for Determining System Requirements 140

Identifying Processes to Reengineer 141

Disruptive Technologies 142

Pine Valley Furniture WebStore: Determining System Requirements 143

System Layout and Navigation Characteristics 143

Contents xi

WebStore and Site Management System Capabilities 144

Customer and Inventory Information 145

System Prototype Evolution 145

Key Points Review 146 Key Terms Checkpoint 147 Review Questions 148 Problems and Exercises 148 Discussion Questions 148 Case Problems 149 Case: Petrie’s Electronics 150

Chapter 6 Structuring System Requirements: Process Modeling 152 Process Modeling 154

Modeling a System’s Process 154

Deliverables and Outcomes 154

Data-Flow Diagramming Mechanics 155

Definitions and Symbols 156

Developing DFDs: An Example 158

Data-Flow Diagramming Rules 161

Decomposition of DFDs 162

Balancing DFDs 164

Using Data-Flow Diagramming in the Analysis Process 166

Guidelines for Drawing DFDs 166

Using DFDs as Analysis Tools 168

Using DFDs in Business Process Reengineering 169

Logic Modeling 171

Modeling Logic with Decision Tables 172

Pine Valley Furniture WebStore: Process Modeling 175

Process Modeling for Pine Valley Furniture’s WebStore 175

Key Points Review 177 Key Terms Checkpoint 178 Review Questions 179 Problems and Exercises 179 Discussion Questions 183 Case Problems 184 Case: Petrie’s Electronics 185

Chapter 7 Structuring System Requirements: Conceptual Data Modeling 188 Conceptual Data Modeling 190

The Process of Conceptual Data Modeling 191

Deliverables and Outcomes 191

xii Contents

Gathering Information for Conceptual Data Modeling 195

Introduction to Entity-Relationship Modeling 197

Entities 197

Attributes 199

Candidate Keys and Identifiers 199

Multivalued Attributes 200

Relationships 201

Conceptual Data Modeling and the E-R Model 201

Degree of a Relationship 202

Cardinalities in Relationships 203

An Example of Conceptual Data Modeling at Hoosier Burger 206

PVF WebStore: Conceptual Data Modeling 209

Conceptual Data Modeling for Pine Valley Furniture’s WebStore 209

Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy 213

The Process of Selecting the Best Alternative Design Strategy 213

Generating Alternative Design Strategies 214

Developing Design Strategies for Hoosier Burger’s New Inventory Control System 216

Selecting the Most Likely Alternative 218

Key Points Review 220 Key Terms Checkpoint 221 Review Questions 222 Problems and Exercises 222 Discussion Questions 225 Case Problems 225 Case: Petrie’s Electronics 229


Chapter 8 Designing the Human Interface 232 Designing Forms and Reports 234

The Process of Designing Forms and Reports 234

Deliverables and Outcomes 236

Formatting Forms and Reports 238

Designing Interfaces and Dialogues 246

The Process of Designing Interfaces and Dialogues 246

Deliverables and Outcomes 247

Designing Interfaces 247

Designing Dialogues 258

Contents xiii

Pine Valley Furniture WebStore: Designing the Human Interface 262

General Guidelines for Designing Web Interfaces 262

General Guidelines for Web Layouts 262

Designing the Human Interface at Pine Valley Furniture 263

Menu-Driven Navigation with Cookie Crumbs 264

Lightweight Graphics 265

Forms and Data Integrity 265

Template-Based HTML 265

Key Points Review 266 Key Terms Checkpoint 267 Review Questions 267 Problems and Exercises 268 Discussion Questions 268 Case Problems 269 Case: Petrie’s Electronics 270

Chapter 9 Designing Databases 272 Database Design 274

The Process of Database Design 274

Deliverables and Outcomes 276

Relational Database Model 279

Well-Structured Relations 280

Normalization 281

Rules of Normalization 281

Functional Dependence and Primary Keys 282

Second Normal Form 282

Third Normal Form 283

Transforming E-R Diagrams into Relations 284

Represent Entities 285

Represent Relationships 286

Summary of Transforming E-R Diagrams to Relations 288

Merging Relations 289

An Example of Merging Relations 289

View Integration Problems 290

Logical Database Design for Hoosier Burger 291

Physical File and Database Design 293

Designing Fields 294

Choosing Data Types 294

Controlling Data Integrity 296

Designing Physical Tables 297

Arranging Table Rows 299

Designing Controls for Files 303

xiv Contents

Physical Database Design for Hoosier Burger 304

Pine Valley Furniture WebStore: Designing Databases 306

Designing Databases for Pine Valley Furniture’s WebStore 307

Key Points Review 309 Key Terms Checkpoint 311 Review Questions 312 Problems and Exercises 312 Discussion Questions 314 Case Problems 314 Case: Petrie’s Electronics 315


Chapter 10 Systems Implementation and Operation 318 Systems Implementation and Operation 320

The Processes of Coding, Testing, and Installation 321

Deliverables and Outcomes from Coding, Testing, and Installation 321

The Processes of Documenting the System, Training Users, and Supporting Users 322

Deliverables and Outcomes from Documenting the System, Training Users, and Supporting Users 323

The Process of Maintaining Information Systems 323

Deliverables and Outcomes from Maintaining Information Systems 324

Software Application Testing 325

Seven Different Types of Tests 325

The Testing Process 327

Acceptance Testing by Users 329

Installation 330

Planning Installation 330

Documenting the System 333

User Documentation 334

Preparing User Documentation 335

Training and Supporting Users 336

Training Information System Users 336

Supporting Information System Users 338

Support Issues for the Analyst to Consider 340

Why Implementation Sometimes Fails 341

Project Closedown 342

Conducting Systems Maintenance 343

Types of Maintenance 343

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