Data-Flow Diagramming

Data-Flow Diagramming

Controlling Data Integrity 296

Designing Physical Tables 297

Arranging Table Rows 299

Designing Controls for Files 303

xiv Contents

Physical Database Design for Hoosier Burger 304

Pine Valley Furniture WebStore: Designing Databases 306

Designing Databases for Pine Valley Furniture’s WebStore 307

Key Points Review 309 Key Terms Checkpoint 311 Review Questions 312 Problems and Exercises 312 Discussion Questions 314 Case Problems 314 Case: Petrie’s Electronics 315

PART V SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATION 318

Chapter 10 Systems Implementation and Operation 318 Systems Implementation and Operation 320

The Processes of Coding, Testing, and Installation 321

Deliverables and Outcomes from Coding, Testing, and Installation 321

The Processes of Documenting the System, Training Users, and Supporting Users 322

Deliverables and Outcomes from Documenting the System, Training Users, and Supporting Users 323

The Process of Maintaining Information Systems 323

Deliverables and Outcomes from Maintaining Information Systems 324

Software Application Testing 325

Seven Different Types of Tests 325

The Testing Process 327

Acceptance Testing by Users 329

Installation 330

Planning Installation 330

Documenting the System 333

User Documentation 334

Preparing User Documentation 335

Training and Supporting Users 336

Training Information System Users 336

Supporting Information System Users 338

Support Issues for the Analyst to Consider 340

Why Implementation Sometimes Fails 341

Project Closedown 342

Conducting Systems Maintenance 343

Types of Maintenance 343

The Cost of Maintenance 344

Contents xv

xvi Contents

Measuring Maintenance Effectiveness 345

Controlling Maintenance Requests 346

Configuration Management 347

Role of Automated Development Tools in Maintenance 348

Web Site Maintenance 348

Maintaining an Information System at Pine Valley Furniture 349

Pine Valley Furniture WebStore: Systems Implementation and Operation 350

Systems Implementation and Operation for Pine Valley Furniture’s WebStore 351

Key Points Review 353 Key Terms Checkpoint 354 Review Questions 356 Problems and Exercises 356 Discussion Questions 357 Case Problems 357 Case: Petrie’s Electronics 358

Appendix A Object-Oriented Analysis and Design 361 The Object-Oriented Modeling Approach 361

Use-Case Modeling 362

Object Modeling: Class Diagrams 365

Representing Associations 366

Representing Generalization 368

Representing Aggregation 370

Dynamic Modeling: State Diagrams 371

Dynamic Modeling: Sequence Diagrams 372

Designing a Use Case with a Sequence Diagram 374

Moving to Design 375

Key Points Review 376 Key Terms Checkpoint 377 Review Questions 378 Problems and Exercises 378

Appendix B Agile Methodologies 381 The Trend to Agile Methodologies 381

Agile Methodologies 382

eXtreme Programming 384

The Heart of the Systems Development Process 385

Requirements Determination 386

Design Specifications 389

Implementation 391

What We’ve Learned about Agile Methodologies 391

Key Points Review 392 Key Terms Checkpoint 393 Review Questions 393 Problems and Exercises 393

References 395 Glossary of Acronyms 401 Glossary of Terms 403 Index 409

Contents xvii

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Preface

Our Approach In today’s information- and technology-driven business world, students need to be aware of three key factors. First, it is more crucial than ever to know how to organize and access information strategically. Second, success often depends on the ability to work as part of a team. Third, the Internet will play an impor- tant part in their work lives. Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design, Fifth Edition, addresses these key factors.

More than 50 years’ combined teaching experience in systems analysis and design have gone into creating Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design, Fifth Edition, a text that emphasizes hands-on, experimental learning. We pro- vide a clear presentation of the concepts, skills, and techniques students need to become effective systems analysts who work with others to create informa- tion systems for businesses. We use the systems development life cycle model as an organizing tool throughout the book to provide a strong conceptual and systematic framework.

Internet coverage is provided in each chapter via an integrated, extended illustrative case (Pine Valley Furniture WebStore) and an end-of-chapter case (Petrie’s Electronics).

Many systems analysis and design courses involve lab work and outside read- ing. Lecture time can be limited. Based on market research and our own teach- ing experience, we understand the need for a book that combines depth of coverage with brevity. So we have created a ten-chapter book that covers key systems analysis and design content without overwhelming students with unnecessary detail.

New to the Fifth Edition The following features are new to the Fifth Edition:

� Emphasis on current changes in systems analysis and design. The move to structured analysis and design in the late 1970s was considered to be a revolution in systems development. We are undergoing another revolution now, as we move away from complex, plan-driven development to new approaches called “Agile Methodologies.” Although the best-known Agile Methodology is eXtreme Programming, many other approaches are also available. The Agile revolution in systems development is acknowledged and briefly explained in Chapter 1 and then explored in much greater depth in Appendix B.

� Increased focus on make versus buy and systems integration. More and more systems development involves the use of packages in combination with legacy applications and new modules. Coverage of the make-versus-buy decision and of the multiple sources of software and software components is highlighted in Chapter 2 to show how companies deal with these issues.

� New end-of-chapter running case. Petrie’s Electronics, a fictional electronics retailer, is a student project case that allows students to study and develop a Web-based customer loyalty program to enhance a customer relationship management system.

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� Updated illustrations of technology. Screen captures have been updated throughout the text to show examples using the latest versions of programming and Internet development environments, and user interface designs.

� New entity-relationship notation. We now use a new notation for entity-relationship diagramming in Chapter 7 and elsewhere. This notation is consistent with that used in Modern Database Management, Tenth Edition, by Hoffer, Ramesh, and Topi (2011).

� Updated content. Throughout the book, the content in each chapter has been updated where appropriate.

� End-of-chapter updates. We have provided extensive updates to existing problems along with several new problems in every chapter.

Themes Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design, Fifth Edition, is characterized by the following themes:

� Systems development is firmly rooted in an organizational context. The successful systems analyst requires a broad understanding of organizations, organizational culture, and operations.

� Systems development is a practical field. Coverage of current practices as well as accepted concepts and principles is essential for today’s systems analyst.

� Systems development is a profession. The text presents standards of practice, and fosters a sense of continuing personal development, ethics, and a respect for and collaboration with the work of others.

� Systems development has significantly changed with the explosive growth in databases, data-driven architecture for systems, and the Internet. Systems development and database management can be taught in a highly coordinated fashion. The Internet has rapidly become a common development platform for database-driven electronic commerce systems.

� Success in systems analysis and design requires not only skills in methodologies and techniques, but also in the management of time, resources, and risks. Learning systems analysis and design requires a thorough understanding of the process as well as the techniques and deliverables of the profession.

Given these themes, the text emphasizes these approaches:

� A business rather than a technology perspective

� The role, responsibilities, and mind-set of the systems analyst as well as the systems project manager, rather than those of the programmer or business manager

� The methods and principles of systems development rather than the specific tools or tool-related skills of the field

Audience The book assumes that students have taken an introductory course on com- puter systems and have experience writing programs in at least one program- ming language. We review basic system principles for those students who have

xx Preface

not been exposed to the material on which systems development methods are based. We also assume that students have a solid background in computing lit- eracy and a general understanding of the core elements of a business, including basic terms associated with the production, marketing, finance, and accounting functions.

Organization The outline of the book follows the systems development life cycle:

� Part I, “Foundations for Systems Development,” gives an overview of systems development and previews the remainder of the book.

� Part II, “Systems Planning and Selection,” covers how to assess project feasibility and build the baseline project plan.

� Part III, “Systems Analysis,” covers determining system requirements, process modeling, and conceptual data modeling.

� Part IV, “Systems Design,” covers how to design the human interface and databases.

� Part V, “Systems Implementation and Operation,” covers system implementation, operation, closedown, and system maintenance.

� Appendix A, “Object-Oriented Analysis and Design,” and Appendix B, “Agile Methodologies,” can be skipped or treated as advanced topics at the end of the course.

Distinctive Features Here are some of the distinctive features of Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design, Fifth Edition:

  1. The grounding of systems development in the typical architecture for systems in modern organizations, including database management and Web-based systems.

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