ENVIRONMENTALRACISM

ENVIRONMENTALRACISM
Prerequisite:CompletionofGEbasicsubjects(BlockA)andOneG.E.BlockB1course.Useofepidemiologyinenvironmentalhealth.Morbidityandmortalityincommunitiesofcolorandlower economicstatusduetodisproportionatedistributionofenvironmentalcontaminants.

CHS370/HS 370
EnvironmentalRacism

Spring2013
Roberto Flores Ph.D
AdjunctAssistantProfessor
Dept.ofChicanoStudies
Robertof2@socal.rr.com
Remember:
Thissectionofthecourseistaughtfullyonline.!
Environmental Racism
Definition:

Epidemiology Examinationofthelinkbetweenhuman exposure and health outcomes

HumanExposure
Information

Riskassessment
Estimation ofthelikelihood, magnitude anduncertainty ofhealth risksassociatedwith environmentalexposures

Theintentionalsitingofhazardouswastesites,landfills,incineratorsandpollutingindustriesincommunities inhabitedmainlybyAfricanAmericans,Hispanics,NativeAmericans,Asians,migrantworkers andtheworkingpoor.

StatusandtrendsEvaluation of historicalpatterns Current statusand possibleFuturechangeinhumanexposuresand/orhealth outcomes

Route
Magnitude
Duration
Frequency
distribution

Mostexposed
Temporalaspects
Geographic aspects
Demographic aspects

Riskmanagement Determinationofwhich,healthrisksareunacceptableand whattodoaboutthem

Thesefacilitiesmaybetiedtoacommunityís
economicsurvivaltherebycompromising
residentsíabilitytoopposeìlocallyundesirablelanduses.î

Importantusesof humanexposureinformation intheassessment andmanagement ofenvironmentalhealth risks (Sextonetal.)http://www.ehponline.org/members/1995/Suppl-3/sex ton-full.html

MeasuringEnvironmentalRacism EnvironmentalRacism:Whydoesit occur

How doesonegoabout determiningenvironmentalracismexists

I. Whatvariablesmatter
Independent

Relationshipbetweensocialmovements,industry,
laborandtechnology

variables
Dependent variables

Epidemiology
ONLINE

Raceand class(income,education, occupation) arecriticalvariables to
examine.
II. ObserveEffects
A. Wherearepolluting facilitieslocated Wherearepesticides ortoxinsdisposed of Inotherwords,whatpatternscanbeobservedintermsofìsitingîoffacilities, dumping oftoxins,clustering, etc.(riskfactors,exposure)
B. Whateffectsdoesìsitingîoftoxicwastehaveoncommunities ofcolorintermsofqualityoflifeandoccurrenceofadversehealtheffects:morbidityrate&mortalityrate=epidemiological profile ofcommunitiesexposedtowaste,toxins etc.
III. Epidemiology examinesrisk,morbidity,mortality
IntheLosAngelesbasin,exposuretopollution fromcar
emissionsiscorrelatedwithmorecasesofasthmain children.
IV. Assessments/Activities
Clickto seeCancerinLABasinHowdoesenvironmentalpollution affectthecancerratesthroughout theLABasin

TheEnvironmentalMovementandEnvironmentalJusticeMovementsprovidedifferent assessmentsandsolutionsforcommunities toaddressEnvironmentalRacism

Science,research&technologycentraltodebates
andsolutions
Health&theenvironment
epidemiology

EnvironmentalismandPolicy

Preservation

Environmentalpolicyisrootedintwocompetingperspectivesabouttheenvironment:preservationandconservation

TwoleadingfiguresinfluencingearlyU.S.
governmentenvironmentalpolicyinclude
Sierra Clubfounder JohnMuir(1838-1914).Activist.proposedwildlifepreservationandadvocatedfornationalparks
GiffordPinchot(1865-1946.Policy.HeadofU.S.
ForestryService(1905-1910);hebelievedin

JohnMuir,totherightofpresidentTheodoreRoosevelt,convincedhimtoprotect wildernessland.

“Ifyouthinkaboutallthegainsoursocietyhasmade,fromindependencetonow,itwasn’tgovernment.Itwas activism.Peoplethink,’Oh,TeddyRooseveltestablishedYosemiteNationalPark,whatagreatpresident.’BS.ItwasJohnMuirwhoinvitedRooseveltoutandthenconvincedhimtoditchhissecurity andgocamping.ItwasMuir,anactivist,asingleperson.”
–Patagoniafounderandoutdoor
enthusiastYvonChouinardinarecentSierraMagazineinterview
http://www.sierraclub.org/john_muir_exhibit/
Quarter coin2005

conservationandscientificmanagementofresources
forhumanuseorprofit

http://www.sierraclub.org/john_muir_exhibit/graphics/roosvelt_muir_front.jpg

GovernmentAgencies&ScientificManagement

U.S.ForestryService
GiffordPinchotbelievedthatscientificknowledgeneededtobeappliedtomanagementofnaturalresources.Efficiencywasthe goal.

Inhisview,sciencecouldprovideanindependentvoicecapableofmoderatingbetweenprofitmotivesofindustryandtoomuchgovernmentcontrol.

ControlofNature: Science &Progress

Trustintechnologytoadvanceeconomic
growth
Burgeoningindustriesrequirelotsofnatural
resources
Growingpopulationandurbanizationrequirehighervolumeoffoodproduction
Pesticideskeytoìcontrolofnatureîand
nationalprogress
DDTchemicalwidely usedtocontrolinsects;higheragriculturaloutput

SilentSpring:PesticidesandHealth

PublicationofRachelCarsonísbookìSilentSpringîin1962brings ecologicalawarenesstonationalpublic attention.
CarsoncritiquesuseofDDTandenumeratesvariousharmfuleffectson floraandfauna andthelastingimpactonsoil, waterandairquality–morecritically ontheviability andvitality ofourfoodchain.
Sheconnectsdiseaseinthenaturalenvironmenttotheprevalenceofillnessesin humans
Callsforlessaggressivepestcontrolmethodsto
preventthedegradationoftheenvironment
DDTwasbannedintheU.S.in1972

GovernmentGovernment Oversight

EnvironmentalProtectionAgencyestablishedin
1970
Citizen inputwasveryimportanttothisnewregulatoryagency
Stillmuchoftheregulationsfavorbureaucraticexpertknowledgesystemswhichdonítalwaysprotectresidents affectedbyharmfulfacilitiesortoxicsubstances
Poorerandlesseducatedgroupsaremostly
excludedfromìmeaningfulparticipationî
SeeWhyEPAwas established

Environmental Justice Movements

ConsolidationofanetworkofAfricanAmericanenvironmentalactivistsandorganizationssince1982thrutheUnitedChurchofChrist.

MinorityEnvironmentalstruggleshavealonghistory.

NativeAmericancommunitiespointoutthattheyhavebeenengagedinenvironmentalstruggles sincetheirlands
wereinvadedbyEuropeans.

MajorenvironmentalprotectionorganizationshavebeenestablishedliketheSierraClub(1898);buttheyhavebeentypicallyfocusedonconservation/preservationissuesandhaveoftenstayedawayfromthestrugglesofpoor communities.
http://www.macalester.edu/americanstudies/afamconf7.html RicardoLevinsMorales,NorthlandPosterCollective

NativeAmericansandEnvironmentalRacism
WinonaLaDuke,anativeAmericanscholar,describes thesituationinthesecommunitiesintermsofresourceextraction,dumpingofnuclearwasteandothersubstances,clearcutting(deforesting).

Industrialdevelopmentinitiativeshaveìdevouredîlands, rivers,speciesand entireculturesintheirpath.

Theseìinvasiveindustrialinterventionsî(Laduke1999)threaten notonlythosecommunitiesbutalsobiodiversity.
Native AmericansandEnvironmentalRacism

ThelossofbiodiversitythreatenstheexistenceofNativeAmericans.

Attentionto thelossofbiodiversityinthiscommunityraisesissues ofpreservationofculturaldiversityandfuturegenerationsofnativesandnon-natives

ClickNavajo
http://www.latimes.com/extras/navajo/Day1/

UrbanCommunitiesOrganizedAgainstDumping

MotherísofEastLosAngeles,Santa Isabel
MELASiorìLasMELASî

Opposedincinerators, pipelineandprisonproposals forEastLosAngeles

AuroraCastillo,a MELASactivistput
itsuccintly:

UrbanCommunitiesOrganizedAgainstDumping

GoldmanEnvironmental Prize1995
ìWeneedconstructivejobs–nurses,doctors,computerspecialists,skilledworkers…Thestatewantstoplaceallofsocietyísproblemsinour
community–aprison,a pipeline andan
incinerator.Theywillhavetosolve
thoseproblems, notjustdumpthem
fromoneplacetoanother.î

(AuroraCastilloinDevon Pena,TierraYVida:MexicanAmericansandtheEnvironment2005:xxiv)

AuroraCastillo,residentofEastLos AngelesandfoundingMemberof
MELAS(MotherísofEastLos
Angeles)receivedtheGoldman
EnvironmentalPrizein1995.MELAS
ìisrecognizedasapoliticalforceinthe regionthathashelpedtosetimportant legalprecedentsforothergrassroots environmentaljusticegroups.î

http://www.goldmanprize.org/node/89

GoldmanEnvironmental Prize2004 AncestralLands:WaterRights
LandandCulturevs.Commodities

Petrochemicalsandhealth

ìGrowing UpinCancerAlley
Margie Richard grewup in the historicallyAfrican-American neighborhood ofOldDiamondinNorco, Louisiana,ina housejust 25feet awayfromShellChemicalsplant’sfenceline. Yearslater,she wouldleadthe front line of a long, hard-won battle to holdShellaccountableforthe devastatinghealth problems in hercommunity.Richard, 62,whose
campaignhasbeen hailedasalandmark
environmental justicevictory, holdsthe distinctionas thefirst African-American to winthe Goldman
EnvironmentalPrize.î2004
http://www.goldmanprize.org/node/100

Acequias,centuriesoldwaterirrigationditches, usedin landgrantsinNewMexico&Colorado

GenerationsofacequiafarmersintheSouthwesthavecleanedupthisvitalresourcesincethe17thcentury

Communitiesareconcernedwithpollutionandthedeforesting/cuttingoftrees

Hispanofarmershavenotonlybeenfightingfortheirlandbutalsowaterrights

Farmworkers,Agro-industriesandPesticides

Activistslinkedpesticideusetoenvironmentaldamageandunknowneffectstoconsumer.
Theyemphasizedworkplacesafety,qualityoflifeofentirecommunitiesandpesticiderelatedillnesses,birthdefectsanddeaths.
CesarChaveznotedthatchemicalcompaniesandgrowersconvincedpoliticianandgovernmentregulatorsthatpesticideusewasnecessaryfortheabundanceoffood.
Hequestionedthecost tofarmworkersandtotheenvironment.

Ecology andKnowledge: LandandCulture
Asyoucanseetheactionsofdevelopersand
environmentalpollutershavegeneratedresistance.
Land-basedandlaborstrugglesinruralareaslinktheissuestoecologicalimpactsandthelossofbiodiversity.
Inurbanareas,wewillexamineeffortstoestablishcommunitygardenstoaddressìfood securityîbutalsotheretentionandrestorationofecologicalknowledge.
Urbancommunity gardenshighlighttheimportanceoflandinthe foodchainandtheproductchain.
Fundamentally,thesearestrugglesfordefinitionofvalue;thepreservationofindigenous knowledgeandlivelihood;communityhealth.
EnvironmentalRacism&Justice Struggles Power&DecisionMaking:EnvironmentalRacism

 

Power&Decision Makin g: ìFromtheGroundUp î

Cole&Fosterprofileanimportantexampleofpoweranddecisionmaking

IntheKettlemancase,thecommunitywasshutoutfromvoicingtheiropinions,concernsandobjectionstoanincinerator proposal.

Economicbenefits fromrevenueproducedbythissite wenttocommunitiesnotdirectlyaffectedbytheeverydayoperationofthesite.

TheCountyBoardofSupervisors votedfortheincinerator3-1.

DumpingToxicWaste:StateEnvironmentalLaws

Publicnoticerequirements under environmentallawsleftthecommunityofKettlemanCityintheSanJoaquinValleyatadisadvantage.
Therefore,residentsofthiscommunity didnotfindoutaboutatoxicwastefacility untilthe1980s.
ChemWaste,Incwasproposinganincineratorexpansionthatwouldburnupto108,000tonsof(216millionlbs)toxicwasteeachyear.Thisbasicallywouldbeinadditiontothehundredsofdaily
truckloadsprocessedatthissite.
ChemWasteownsthelargestwastedumpinEmelle,AlabamaandtwootherlargefacilitiesinCalifornia.

CerrellReport

Dangerous Patterns

Inlookingatthedistributionofthesefacilities,activistsfoundthatmostofthetoxicwastedumpswerelocatedinpoorminoritycommunities.
TheCerrellReportprovidedcluesaboutthesitingprocess.
CommissionedbytheCaliforniaWasteManagementBoardandpaidforbytaxpayerdollars:
TheCerrellreportsuggestedthatthecommunitiesthatwouldbeleastresistanttoincineratorswere:
ruralcommunities,poorcommunities,communitieswhoseresidents hadloweducationallevels,…highlycatholic,fewerthan25,000 residents…employedinresourceextractivejobssuchasmining, timberandagriculture.(Cole&Fosterp3)

ChemWastewasfinednumeroustimes for
unsafehandlingofwaste
Eventhoughfineswereprettyhigh,their
behaviorcontinued
Superfundcleanupviolations
ìsamplepackingîjustcheckingthefirst10trucks
insteadofensuringthatincompatiblewasteswerenotthrowntogether
ìResidentísfiguredthatifthecompanycanítrunaholeintheground correctly,itshouldnít begiventheabilitytodosomethingworse.î
TheincineratorinKettlemanCitywouldbedangerousaccordingtoresidents!(Cole&Fosterp5)

ApprovalProcess:KettlemanIncinerator

KettlemanCityresidentswereexcludedfrom
ìmeaningfulparticipationîinvariousways.
LackoftranslationofEnvironmentalImpactreport
Only5 ofthe1000pagesofthedocument
translatedintoSpanish.
Community dissentwasnottakenintoaccount intheplanningcommissionísdecisiontoapprovetheincinerator.
TheCerrellreportwas accurateinthatinstitutionalbarrierspreventedtheKettlemanCitycommunityfrom beingheard,recording theiroppositionandparticipatinginthedecision-making.

Racism:EffectonCitizenParticipation,Democratic
vsTechnocraticKnowledge

Citizeninputlimitedbyclass,languageand
technicaldifferences

Raceasignificantfactor

Communitieshavetodocumenttheeffectsofexposureandconfrontnotonly pollutersbutalsovariousinstitutionsthatblocktheiraccess

WhereelseinChapters1&2doyousee evidence
ofbarrierstocitizenparticipation

GrassrootsOrganizingandCitizenLawsuits
ResidentsofKettlemanCitysuedandthecourtruledthatlackof participationinthereview processmandatedbytheCalifornia EnvironmentalQualityAct(CEQA)wasaviolation.

TheresidentshaddemandedreviewoftheEnvironmentalImpactReport (EIR).

GreenpeaceandElPuebloorganizedtosend5,000postcardstothe BoardandtheFarmBureau.

Theyalsocollected17,000signaturesinoppositiontotheincinerator.

ChemWasteappealedthejudgment.

Thiscasereflectedthe successofgrassrootsresistance.

ChemWastewithdrewitsapplicationin1993citingdeclineinuseof incineratortechnology.

Terminology

Environmentalracismandenvironmentalinjustice willbeusedinterchangeablyinallthreetextsandinthecourse.

Theterminjusticebestcapturesthattoxicassaults moreseverely/directly affectthoselowerwithina hierarchyofclassandraciallocations.

Environmentalinjusticeacknowledgesinequity
asa problemforeveryone.

(Cole&Fosterp15)

WhereShouldWasteFacilitiesbeSited
WastefacilitiesareLULUS(locallyundesirableland
uses)

Shouldwejust stopcreatingwaste Howdowe do
that

Whatarethegoalsoftheenvironmentalmovement

Thedistributionofcommercial,hazardousorpotentiallyhazardousfacilitiesaswellasthecleanupof ìsuperfund sitesî concernsoccupationalenvironmental health.

Whatyou shouldlearn fromthispresentation
Thisconcludestheintroductiontothecourseandthedifferent sourcesofinformationIwillbeusing.

Youshouldreadpage1-53ofCole&FosterFromtheGroundUp: EnvironmentalRacismandtheRiseof theEnvironmentalJusticeMovementthisweek.

Pleaseposttothediscussionboard,introduceyourselfwithname, majorandabriefbiography.

Haveyoutakenanonlinecoursebefore Haveyoutakenother
distancelearningcoursesbefore

Iwillpostquestionsfordiscussionfocusedontheoverviewand pp1-53onFriday8a.m.andyouwillhaveuntil8p.m.Mondayto postaresponse.

MakesurethatyoulogintoWebCtthisweekagainforadditional postingsandannouncements!

 
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