export marketing and overseas marketing
Identification of market segments that cut across countries, (2) potential economies of scale in manufacturing and marketing, and (3) firm goals, strategies, structures, and personnel that support a global approach.
Global competition is placing new emphasis on some basic tenets of business. It is reducing time frames and focusing on the importance of quality, competitive prices, and innovative products. Time is becoming a precious commodity for business, and expanding technology is shortening product life cycles and creating greater opportunities for innovative products. A company no longer can introduce a new product with the expectation of dominating the market for years while the idea spreads slowly through world markets. In any given year, for example, two thirds of Hewlett-Packard’s revenue comes from product introduced in the prior three years. Shorter product life cycles mean that a company must maximize sales rapidly to recover development costs and generate a profit by offering its products globally. Along with technological advances have come enhanced market expectation for innovative products at competitive prices. Today, strategic planning must include emphasis on quality, technology, and cost containment. To achieve the flexibility and speed required under such conditions, many firms are entering collaborative relationships to shore up their weaknesses whether in distribution, technology or manufacturing that will enable them to respond to the problems created by shorter life cycles.
The competitive environment of international business is changing rapidly. To be competitive in global markets a company must meet or exceed new standards for quality and new levels of technology. There is an increasing change of pace for product development and profitability. Cost efficient, technologically advanced products are being offered by competitors and demanded in established markets as well as in markets rising from formerly Marxist-socialist economies. Opportunities abound the world over, but to benefit, firms must be current in new technology, have the ability to keep abreast of technological change, have distribution systems to capitalize on global demand, have cost-effective manufacturing, and have capital to build new systems as necessary.
The accelerating rate of technological progress, market demand created by global industrialization, and the creation of new middle classes will result in tremendous potential in global markets. But, along with this surge in global demand comes an increase in competition as technology and management capabilities spread beyond global companies to new competitors from Asia, Europe, and Latin America. Although global markets offer tremendous potential, companies seeking to function effectively in a fragmented global market of five billion people are being forced to stretch production, designengineering, and marketing resources and capabilities because of the intensity of competition and the increasing pace of technology. Improvements in quality and staying on the cutting edge of technology are critical and basic for survival but often are not enough. Restructuring, reorganizing and downsizing are all avenues being taken by firms to strengthen their competitive positions. Additionally, many multinational companies are realizing they must develop long term, mutually beneficial relationships throughout the company and beyond to competitors, suppliers, governments, and customers. In short, multinational companies are developing orientations that focus on building collaborative relationships to promote long-term alliances and they are seeking continuous, mutually beneficial exchanges.
The environment facing multinational companies demands flexibility, quality, cost containment, cutting edge manufacturing skills, and a rapid response to market changes to sustain a competitive advantage. The strengths and capabilities a company must have to be a major player are enormous and few companies can cover all the bases all of the time. To shore up weaknesses, companies are entering relationships with others to share what each does best whether in marketing, research or manufacturing. Collaborative relationships are becoming a common way to meet the demands of global competition and a successful collaboration means that each achieves more together than either can accomplish alone.
In phase one of the planning process, there are a host of reasons why a country would no longer be considered. On balance, those countries that do not offer sufficient potential for further consideration will be eliminated. Some of the reasons why this may occur are that product acceptance within the country could not be achieved without extensive investment and new product development, and the firm does not have sufficient resources to make that investment; the legal structure may be such that it would be impossible for the company to function within that country. Competition in the country is such that, based on the company’s objectives, resources, etc., it is felt that it would not be a profitable venture. In other words, any problem that would lead to minimum market potential, minimum profit, minimum return on investment, unacceptable competitive levels, unacceptable political stability, unacceptable legal requirements, etc., may all lead to the dropping of a country.
While the major reasons for dropping a country in phase one center around general environmental constraints, the reasons that a country may be dropped in phase two center around the more specific questions of what cultural environmental adaptations are necessary for successful acceptance of the company’s marketing mix, and will adaptation costs allow for profitable market entry. In phase two, the marketing mix is the focal point of analysis. Still, the final determination of whether or not a country is dropped depends upon the anticipated profitability of the market after necessary adaptations are made.
This is a library-type project. Whatever the details of the screening criteria, the major points that should be considered are: (1) company objectives and goals, (2) product-use characteristics, (3) country environmental characteristics.
The dichotomy drawn between export marketing and overseas marketing is very misleading, for in fact they are but alternative methods of approaching the foreign markets. Yet, on the other hand, these approaches are often interrelated in the complete marketing structure. Both exporting and overseas marketing can be successfully interchanged to reach various heterogeneous markets. Depending on market structure, competition, and company policies, the organizational structure can be so devised so as to use exporting, overseas marketing, or a combination of both to successfully reach a wide assortment of foreign markets. In one country, due to high tariff rates, overseas production and marketing might be advised; on the other hand, poor communications or resources might necessitate exporting.
The differences between entering a fully developed market and an untapped foreign market are many and extremely varied. Some of these differences are channels of distribution which may or may not be developed. Governmental attitudes toward business, foreigners, and industry may be very liberal in a growing economy, while an established market may be very restrictive. Communication and transportation may be highly limited in untapped markets and highly developed in successful countries. The amount of capital, banks, and exchange-rate systems will vary according to the market’s development. Finally, the degree and amount of competition will vary accordingly. To this list, endless factors could be added such as cost of entering the market, social customs, laws, etc.
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