Intervention Decision Making

Intervention Decision Making

Assignment 3 using our ecree platform. The usual SWS form calls for double spacing and a title page (so did APA)—but when we use ecree (as in this HIS105 class), we won’t use double-spacing or a title page. It will be important to write good quality, distinct paragraphs and to organize the paper in the four-part structure called for by the instructions. So, this “format sample” of Assignment 3 has no title page and is single-spaced—except between paragraphs and between source entries at the end. It still has in-text citations (see third paragraph below) and it still has the sources list at the end—you do need those. As required by the instructions, the sources used in this sample are from the REQUIRED list on the instructions sheet—though you are permitted this time to find two of your sources “off the list”, as long as they are good sources from our university’s online library. This sample does not really help you on content, but this gives you guidance on each part of the paper—and illustrates the four-part set-up of the paper and the sourcing. America as a Superpower—the International “Policing Role” More Necessary than Ever is the sample title here—and I put it with the first paragraph. (with another thesis, you might choose America as a Superpower—the International “Policing Role” Should Be Ended). Feel free to word your title to fit your thesis. ]

America as a Superpower—the International “Policing Role” More Necessary than Ever– PART ONE: INTRODUCTION WITH THESIS Notice how this first line of the paragraph and the heading can go together in this ecree approach to the paper. The PART ONE heading is optional, but probably useful for your own clarity while writing and my clarity when I grade it. You have no worry here about indenting or double-spacing; not needed or wanted for ecree. In terms of content, a format sample like this does not provide that—this sheet just shows the form and organization—and samples of citing. And I provide a few tips here. Keep in mind the paper mostly focuses on a long period—from 1950 to 2019; and you will eventually need specific examples—two from the period 1950-1991; two from 1991 to the present. But, in this first paragraph, you will have an introduction to your paper and you will also include your thesis statement as the last sentence of the paragraph. How do you view these things? Is our international “policing role” still needed in an age of terror? More needed than ever? Or is it time to scuttle that strategy? Will your thesis statement be something like this?: By examples from different decades since 1950, it is clear that the international policing role and strategy of the United States was once essential, but should now be discarded as ineffective and counterproductive. Or, perhaps you will you take this position: By examples from different decades since 1950, it is clear that the international policing role and strategy of the United States during the Cold War has become even more necessary in this period of terrorism and instability.

PART TWO—FOUR EXAMPLES: The second and third paragraphs will cover your four SPECIFIC examples supporting your thesis. Caution—don’t get bogged down in describing long trends here, or events that don’t support your thesis. You need two Cold War examples from 1950 to 1991. One could think of Korea, the Cuban Missile Crisis (Schultz, 1, p. 487-8), Vietnam, etc. You need two examples from the period 1991 to the present. This could include the first Persian Gulf War (Schultz, 1, p.538-9), the bombing of Libya (late 1990s), the invasion of Afghanistan, etc. According to Schultz (1, p. 547), even President Clinton’s decision NOT to intervene is Rwanda is a relevant example of “not” doing the policing role Be sure to use the Schultz textbook as a priority source when deciding on your examples. Just above are three examples of what an in-text citation to Schultz would look like. One scholar in 2002 called into question the wisdom of such enormous costs (Klare, 2) projected for continuing a policing role in the world, and even suggests doing this will be “exposing ourselves to an increased level of risk” (p. 16).

EXAMPLES CONTINUED–In this part of the paper you really start developing the topic and your position and evidence. Iraq, Somalia, the killing of Bin Laden, are all examples. President Obama considered the war in Afghanistan as just and necessary, even though he inherited the conflict, and he expanded the use of unmanned drones in key areas (Schultz, 1, p. 567). Christopher Paul (3, p. 1) notes the number of “small” interventions, such as Grenada (1983) and Haiti (1994). So, there are many possibilities. It normally takes two paragraphs to cover your four examples, but stay focused on the examples and don’t get sidetracked from supporting your thesis. Be concise. By the way, you can make valid arguments for either thesis, and present an “A” paper in doing so. The assignment requires you to use the Schultz textbook and at least three other sources from the list on the instruction sheet (or—if not listed—from the university’s library). Since those sources are listed in SWS form and also have a convenient link with them, one can easily copy/paste the ones you use for your sources list at the end. And, with the link, each source is very easy to access.

PART THREE: OPPOSING VIEW This third section of the paper involves some critical thinking on your part. How might a reasonable person disagree with you and give a different position or counter-argument? Keep this in mind—they are opposing the THESIS you chose to argue for in your paper. So, in effect, think of them as adopting the other thesis—the one you did not choose. For example, perhaps you argued that the policing role continues to be necessary—then start this by saying, “some will disagree with my view, and they will argue that our international policing role has become a bad strategy in the post-Cold War period.” THEN—spend a few sentences arguing nicely why your thesis is better than that one. Debate—but don’t be dismissive. Normally, this part is not so much doing more research or providing more examples. Instead it is about suggesting what that different position might be, and then your own logical rationale for favoring your own position instead. It is just critical thinking on your part.


This fourth and concluding paragraph of the paper does not normally involve researching information. It does involve some reflection about the issues covered in your paper and ways those issues impact us—even in ways seldom considered. In any profession that you are currently in or to which you aspire, there are numerous issues of security of data, security of workplace, employees who get deployed, immigrants from unstable areas of conflict, travel, etc. Cyber-security and Criminal Justice fields have more obvious relevance to these issues. government regulations. The war against terror impacts privacy. Think about this—you will then see some very good issues to comment on, as well as your general view on our proper role in the world. Again, this fourth part is normally a paragraph or so—lengthy treatment not needed here. This fourth part should normally serve as the conclusion of the paper. Be sure your paper ends in some way that wraps up succinctly.

FOR SOURCES–Then, in ecree, click on the word “Conclusion” to add new paragraph boxes below it that you can use for source entries—it works best if you can get each source into its own paragraph box. As below, each source must be numbered and should be in SWS style (as can be copied from the instruction sheet). Just do your best with ecree.


  1. Kevin M. Schultz. 2018. HIST: Volume 2: U.S. History since 1865. 5th ed.
  2. M. Klare. July 15, 2002. Endless Military Superiority.
  3. C. Paul. 2008. Marines on the Beach: The Politics of U.S. Military Intervention Decision Making. eBook.

[It is best if you can get each source into its own paragraph box. As below, each source must be numbered and should be in SWS style (as can be copied from the instruction sheet). ]

[Tip, if you upload a Word file of your paper to ecree, have the Sources list very close to the end of your last paragraph—like an inch or so below it. If you have a lot of space between the last paragraph and the list, the upload not include the Sources list.]

[LAST PART—try this on last part, but don’t worry if you can’t get it just right. Your final essay paragraph will ideally be in the box “Conclusion”. Once typed, then click on that word “Conclusion and it will create a new box below with three dots. Keep clicking “Conclusion” until you have 4 or more “three-dot” boxes—one for the heading Sources and one for each source entry on your list of sources. If you cannot quite get this to work, don’t worry about it—just be sure you have a final paragraph (Part 4—Conclusion—Legacy) followed by the list of sources. Even if those boxes seem mislabeled, I will figure it out ok in the grading. Don’t get worried about that.]

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