Managing information

Managing information

Thinking like a researcher;

gathering sources R2 Managing information;

taking notes responsibly R3 Evaluating sources

MLA Papers MLA-1 Supporting a thesis MLA-2 Citing sources;

avoiding plagiarism MLA-3 Integrating sources MLA-4 Documenting sources MLA-5 Manuscript format;

sample research paper

APA and cMs Papers (Coverage parallels MLA’s)

APA-1 APA-2 APA-3 APA-4 APA-5

CMS-1 CMS-2 CMS-3 CMS-4 CMS-5

i index Multilingual menu Revision symbols Detailed menu

hackerhandbooks.com/writersref How to use this book

Writing correctLy

g grammatical sentences G1 Subject-verb agreement G2 Verb forms, tenses, and moods G3 Pronouns G4 Adjectives and adverbs G5 Sentence fragments G6 Run-on sentences

M Multilingual Writers and esL challenges

M1 Verbs M2 Articles M3 Sentence structure M4 Using adjectives M5 Prepositions and idiomatic

expressions M6 Paraphrasing sources effectively

P Punctuation and Mechanics

P1 The comma P2 Unnecessary commas P3 The semicolon and the colon P4 The apostrophe P5 Quotation marks P6 Other punctuation marks P7 Spelling and hyphenation P8 Capitalization P9 Abbreviations and numbers P10 Italics

B Basic grammar B1 Parts of speech B2 Sentence patterns B3 Subordinate word groups B4 Sentence types

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A Reference

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Diana Hacker

Nancy Sommers Harvard University

contributing esL specialist

Kimberli Huster Robert Morris University

A Reference

EiGHtH EDitioN

BEDfoRD/St. MARtiN’S Boston ◆ New York

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For Bedford/St. Martin’s

Vice President, Editorial, Macmillan Higher Education Humanities: Edwin Hill Editorial Director, English and Music: Karen S. Henry Publisher for Composition: Leasa Burton Executive Editor: Michelle M. Clark Senior Editors: Barbara G. Flanagan and Mara Weible Associate Editors: Kylie Paul and Alicia Young Editorial Assistants: Amanda Legee and Stephanie Thomas Senior Production Editor: Rosemary R. Jaffe Production Manager: Joe Ford Marketing Manager: Emily Rowin Copy Editor: Linda McLatchie Indexer: Ellen Kuhl Repetto Photo Researcher: Sheri Blaney Senior Art Director: Anna Palchik Text Design: Claire Seng-Niemoeller Cover Design: Donna Lee Dennison Composition: Cenveo Publisher Services Printing and Binding: RR Donnelley and Sons

Copyright © 2015, 2011, 2007, 2003 by Bedford/St. Martin’s

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as may be expressly permitted by the applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher.

Manufactured in the United States of America.

9 8 7 6 5 4 f e d c b a

For information, write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116 (617-399-4000)

ISBN 978-1-4576-6676-6 (Student Edition)

ISBN 978-1-4576-8625-2 (Instructor’s Edition)

acknowledgments

Text acknowledgments and copyrights appear below. Art acknowledgments and copyrights appear on the same page as the selections they cover; these acknowledgments and copyrights constitute an extension of the copyright page. It is a violation of the law to reproduce these selections by any means whatsoever without the written permission of the copyright holder.

Stephen J. Gould, excerpt from “Were Dinosaurs Dumb?” from Natural History, 87(5): 9–16. Reprinted by permission of Rhonda R. Shearer.

Dorling Kindersly, excerpt from “Encyclopedia of Fishing.” Copyright © Dorling Kindersley Limited, 1994. Reprinted by permission of Penguin Group, Ltd.

Anne and Jack Rudloe, excerpt from “Electric Warfare: The Fish That Kills with Thunderbolts,” from Smithsonian 24(5): 95–105. Reprinted by permission.

Betsy Taylor, “Big Box Stores Are Bad for Main Street,” from CQ Researcher, (November 1999). Copyright © 1999 by CQ Press, a division of Sage Publications. Reprinted with permission.

Gary Wills, excerpt from “Two Speeches on Race,” originally published in the New York Review of Books. Copyright © 2008 by Gary Wills, used by permission of The Wiley Agency, LLC.

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vii

Preface for instructors

Dear Colleagues: As college teachers, we have a far-reaching mission. We prepare

students to write for different purposes, for different audiences, and in different genres and media. We show students how to read critically and write effectively, preparing them to join ongoing research conversations as contributors (not just as consumers) of ideas. What we teach is at the very core of students’ college experience. For academic success, no skill is more critical than effective writing.

This new edition of A Writer’s Reference grows out of my thirty years as a writing teacher and from many conversations with college faculty across disciplines. In all these conversations, I hear a similar theme: Writing is the core of a student’s success, no matter the field of study. Teachers speak about ambitious assignments to teach students how to think and write clearly and precisely, how to interpret evidence and data, and how to enter research conversations with the requisite skills to manage information and avoid plagiarism. And faculty across disciplines all speak about the need for their students to have a reliable handbook to help them understand the expectations of college writing assignments and succeed as writers.

I wanted the eighth edition to capture the energy and creativity that surround conversations about student writing, wherever they take place, and to provide students with a trusted reference that sup- ports their development as writers. I also wanted the eighth edition to align easily with course goals and program outcomes, so I spent a good deal of time reviewing such documents and talking with faculty about how A Writer’s Reference can help them meet their goals. We all have high expectations for the writers in our courses; assigning a handbook designed specifically to meet these expectations makes possible both our mission and our students’ success.

Paging through A Writer’s Reference, you’ll discover features inspired by my conversations with teachers and students. One such feature is an emphasis on the relationship between reading and writing. Turn to tabbed section A (p. 69) to see new material that helps students read critically and write insightfully, engage with print and multimodal texts, and move beyond summary to analysis. The eighth edition shows students how to read carefully to understand an author’s ideas, how to read skeptically to question those ideas, and how to present their own ideas in response.

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viii Preface for instructors

In developing the eighth edition, I wanted students to have even more tools to support the challenges they face as research writers: turn- ing topics into questions, finding entry points in debates, and evalu- ating, integrating, and citing sources. In particular, I wanted to help students who are assigned to write an annotated bibliography, a core academic genre. In the eighth edition, students will find five new writ- ing guides, helpful tools that offer step-by-step instruction for complet- ing common college writing assignments, including writing an anno- tated bibliography.

A goal of the eighth edition was to develop a handbook that saves teachers’ time and increases students’ learning. I’m happy to say that teaching with A Writer’s Reference has become easier than ever. The eighth edition is now available with LaunchPad — a system that includes both a print handbook and e-Pages. For the e-Pages, I’ve writ- ten prompts and collaborative activities called “As you write” to help students apply handbook advice to their own drafts and to offer prac- tice with thesis statements, research questions, peer review, and more. The e-Pages also include videos and LearningCurve, game-like adap- tive quizzing — all easily assignable. Turn to page xi for more about the media.

As college teachers, we help our students develop as thinkers and writers. I can’t imagine work more important than this. Some years ago, a student told me that her first-year writing course encouraged her to become a person with things to say. I love these words and the hope they express that a writing course may have such a sustaining influence on one student’s life. I bring certain beliefs to A Writer’s Reference: that all students will learn to read deeply and write clearly, that they will find in their reading ideas they care about, and that they will write about these ideas with care and depth.

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ixPreface for instructors

What’s new in this edition?

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