programming concepts and techniques.

programming concepts and techniques.

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Digital Resources for Students

Your new textbook provides 12-month access to digital resources that may include VideoNotes (step-by-step video tutorials on programming concepts), source code, web chapters, quizzes, and more. Refer to the preface in the textbook for a detailed list of resources.

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Use the login name and password you created during registration to start using the digital resources that accompany your textbook.

IMPORTANT: This prepaid subscription does not include access to MyProgrammingLab, which is available at for purchase.

This access code can only be used once. This subscription is valid for 12 months upon activation and is not transferable. If the access code has already been revealed it may no longer be valid.

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IntroductIon to

Java ProgrammIng and

data StructureS comPrehenSIve verSIon

Eleventh Edition

Global Edition

Y. daniel Liang Armstrong State University


330 Hudson Street, NY NY 10013

A01_LIAN1878_11_GE_FM.indd 1 1/2/18 11:57 PM

To Samantha, Michael, and Michelle

Java™ and Netbeans™ screenshots ©2017 by Oracle Corporation, all rights reserved. Reprinted with permission. Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on the appropriate page within text. Microsoft and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suit- ability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published as part of the services for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided “as is” without warranty of any kind. Microsoft and/ or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all warranties and conditions of merchantability, whether express, implied or statutory, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Microsoft and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indi- rect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from the services. The documents and related graphics contained herein could include techni- cal inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Microsoft and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time. Partial screen shots may be viewed in full within the software version specified.

Pearson Education Limited KAO Two KAO Park Harlow CM17 9NA United Kingdom

and Associated Companies throughout the world

Visit us on the World Wide Web at:

© Pearson Education Limited 2019

The rights of Y. Daniel Liang to be identified as the author of this work have been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

Authorized adaptation from the United States edition, entitled Introduction to Java Programming and Data Structures, Comprehensive Version, 11th Edition, ISBN 978-0-13-467094-2 by Y. Daniel Liang, published by Pearson Education © 2018.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a license permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS.

All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of this book by such owners.

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Typeset by SPi Global ISBN-10: 1-292-22187-9

Printed and bound by Vivar in Malaysia ISBN-13: 978-1-292-22187-8

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Dear Reader,

Many of you have provided feedback on earlier editions of this book, and your comments and suggestions have greatly improved the book. This edition has been substantially enhanced in presentation, organization, examples, exercises, and supplements.

The book is fundamentals first by introducing basic programming concepts and techniques before designing custom classes. The fundamental concepts and techniques of selection statements, loops, methods, and arrays are the foundation for programming. Building this strong foundation prepares students to learn object-oriented programming and advanced Java programming.

This book teaches programming in a problem-driven way that focuses on problem solv- ing rather than syntax. We make introductory programming interesting by using thought- provoking problems in a broad context. The central thread of early chapters is on problem solving. Appropriate syntax and library are introduced to enable readers to write programs for solving the problems. To support the teaching of programming in a problem-driven way, the book provides a wide variety of problems at various levels of difficulty to motivate students. To appeal to students in all majors, the problems cover many application areas, including math, science, business, financial, gaming, animation, and multimedia.

The book seamlessly integrates programming, data structures, and algorithms into one text. It employs a practical approach to teach data structures. We first introduce how to use various data structures to develop efficient algorithms, and then show how to implement these data structures. Through implementation, students gain a deep understanding on the efficiency of data structures and on how and when to use certain data structures. Finally, we design and implement custom data structures for trees and graphs.

The book is widely used in the introductory programming, data structures, and algorithms courses in the universities around the world. This comprehensive version covers fundamen- tals of programming, object-oriented programming, GUI programming, data structures, algo- rithms, concurrency, networking, database, and Web programming. It is designed to prepare students to become proficient Java programmers. A brief version (Introduction to Java Pro- gramming, Brief Version, Eleventh Edition, Global Edition) is available for a first course on programming, commonly known as CS1. The brief version contains the first 18 chapters of the comprehensive version.

The best way to teach programming is by example, and the only way to learn programming is by doing. Basic concepts are explained by example and a large number of exercises with various levels of difficulty are provided for students to practice. For our programming courses, we assign programming exercises after each lecture.

Our goal is to produce a text that teaches problem solving and programming in a broad context using a wide variety of interesting examples. If you have any comments on and suggestions for improving the book, please email me.


Y. Daniel Liang



data structures

comprehensive version

brief version


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4 Preface

ACM/IEEE Curricular 2013 and ABET Course Assessment The new ACM/IEEE Computer Science Curricular 2013 defines the Body of Knowledge organized into 18 Knowledge Areas. To help instructors design the courses based on this book, we provide sample syllabi to identify the Knowledge Areas and Knowledge Units. The sample syllabi are for a three semester course sequence and serve as an example for institutional customization. The sample syllabi are accessible from the Instructor Resource Center.

Many of our users are from the ABET-accredited programs. A key component of the ABET accreditation is to identify the weakness through continuous course assessment against the course outcomes. We provide sample course outcomes for the courses and sam- ple exams for measuring course outcomes on the Instructor Resource Center.

What’s New in This Edition? This edition is completely revised in every detail to enhance clarity, presentation, content, examples, and exercises. The major improvements are as follows:

■■ The book’s title is changed to Introduction to Java Programming and Data Structures with new enhancements on data structures. The book uses a practical approach to introduce design, implement, and use data structures and covers all topics in a typical data structures course. Additionally, it provides bonus chapters that cover advanced data structures such as 2-4 trees, B-trees, and red-black trees.

■■ Updated to the latest Java technology. Examples and exercises are improved and simplified by using the new features in Java 8.

■■ The default and static methods are introduced for interfaces in Chapter 13.

■■ The GUI chapters are updated to JavaFX 8. The examples are revised. The user interfaces in the examples and exercises are now resizable and displayed in the center of the window.

■■ Inner classes, anonymous inner classes, and lambda expressions are covered using practi- cal examples in Chapter 15.

■■ More examples and exercises in the data structures chapters use lambda expressions to simplify coding. Method references are introduced along with the Comparator interface in Section 20.6.

■■ The forEach method is introduced in Chapter 20 as a simple alternative to the foreach loop for applying an action to each element in a collection.

■■ Use the default methods for interfaces in Java 8 to redesign and simplify MyList, MyArrayList, MyLinkedList, Tree, BST, AVLTree, MyMap, MyHashMap, MySet, MyHashSet, Graph, UnweightedGraph, and WeightedGraph in Chapters 24–29.

■■ Chapter 30 is brand new to introduce aggregate operations for collection streams.

■■ FXML and the Scene Builder visual tool are introduced in Chapter 31.

■■ The Companion Website has been redesigned with new interactive quiz, CheckPoint ques- tions, animations, and live coding.

■■ More than 200 additional programming exercises with solutions are provided to the instructor on the Instructor Resource Center. These exercises are not printed in the text.

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Preface 5

Pedagogical Features The book uses the following elements to help students get the most from the material:

■■ The Objectives at the beginning of each chapter list what students should learn from the chapter. This will help them determine whether they have met the objectives after completing the chapter.

■■ The Introduction opens the discussion with a thought-provoking question to motivate the reader to delve into the chapter.

■■ Key Points highlight the important concepts covered in each section.

■■ Check Points provide review questions to help students track their progress as they read through the chapter and evaluate their learning.

■■ Problems and Case Studies, carefully chosen and presented in an easy-to-follow style, teach problem solving and programming concepts. The book uses many small, simple, and stimulating examples to demonstrate important ideas.

■■ The Chapter Summary reviews the important subjects that students should understand and remember. It helps them reinforce the key concepts they have learned in the chapter.

■■ Quizzes are accessible online, grouped by sections, for students to do self-test on programming concepts and techniques.

■■ Programming Exercises are grouped by sections to provide students with opportunities to apply the new skills they have learned on their own. The level of difficulty is rated as easy (no asterisk), moderate (), hard (), or challenging (). The trick of learning program- ming is practice, practice, and practice. To that end, the book provides a great many exer- cises. Additionally, more than 200 programming exercises with solutions are provided to the instructors on the Instructor Resource Center. These exercises are not printed in the text.

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