project management

project management

Key Points Review 392 Key Terms Checkpoint 393 Review Questions 393 Problems and Exercises 393

References 395 Glossary of Acronyms 401 Glossary of Terms 403 Index 409

Contents xvii

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Preface

Our Approach In today’s information- and technology-driven business world, students need to be aware of three key factors. First, it is more crucial than ever to know how to organize and access information strategically. Second, success often depends on the ability to work as part of a team. Third, the Internet will play an impor- tant part in their work lives. Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design, Fifth Edition, addresses these key factors.

More than 50 years’ combined teaching experience in systems analysis and design have gone into creating Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design, Fifth Edition, a text that emphasizes hands-on, experimental learning. We pro- vide a clear presentation of the concepts, skills, and techniques students need to become effective systems analysts who work with others to create informa- tion systems for businesses. We use the systems development life cycle model as an organizing tool throughout the book to provide a strong conceptual and systematic framework.

Internet coverage is provided in each chapter via an integrated, extended illustrative case (Pine Valley Furniture WebStore) and an end-of-chapter case (Petrie’s Electronics).

Many systems analysis and design courses involve lab work and outside read- ing. Lecture time can be limited. Based on market research and our own teach- ing experience, we understand the need for a book that combines depth of coverage with brevity. So we have created a ten-chapter book that covers key systems analysis and design content without overwhelming students with unnecessary detail.

New to the Fifth Edition The following features are new to the Fifth Edition:

� Emphasis on current changes in systems analysis and design. The move to structured analysis and design in the late 1970s was considered to be a revolution in systems development. We are undergoing another revolution now, as we move away from complex, plan-driven development to new approaches called “Agile Methodologies.” Although the best-known Agile Methodology is eXtreme Programming, many other approaches are also available. The Agile revolution in systems development is acknowledged and briefly explained in Chapter 1 and then explored in much greater depth in Appendix B.

� Increased focus on make versus buy and systems integration. More and more systems development involves the use of packages in combination with legacy applications and new modules. Coverage of the make-versus-buy decision and of the multiple sources of software and software components is highlighted in Chapter 2 to show how companies deal with these issues.

� New end-of-chapter running case. Petrie’s Electronics, a fictional electronics retailer, is a student project case that allows students to study and develop a Web-based customer loyalty program to enhance a customer relationship management system.

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� Updated illustrations of technology. Screen captures have been updated throughout the text to show examples using the latest versions of programming and Internet development environments, and user interface designs.

� New entity-relationship notation. We now use a new notation for entity-relationship diagramming in Chapter 7 and elsewhere. This notation is consistent with that used in Modern Database Management, Tenth Edition, by Hoffer, Ramesh, and Topi (2011).

� Updated content. Throughout the book, the content in each chapter has been updated where appropriate.

� End-of-chapter updates. We have provided extensive updates to existing problems along with several new problems in every chapter.

Themes Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design, Fifth Edition, is characterized by the following themes:

� Systems development is firmly rooted in an organizational context. The successful systems analyst requires a broad understanding of organizations, organizational culture, and operations.

� Systems development is a practical field. Coverage of current practices as well as accepted concepts and principles is essential for today’s systems analyst.

� Systems development is a profession. The text presents standards of practice, and fosters a sense of continuing personal development, ethics, and a respect for and collaboration with the work of others.

� Systems development has significantly changed with the explosive growth in databases, data-driven architecture for systems, and the Internet. Systems development and database management can be taught in a highly coordinated fashion. The Internet has rapidly become a common development platform for database-driven electronic commerce systems.

� Success in systems analysis and design requires not only skills in methodologies and techniques, but also in the management of time, resources, and risks. Learning systems analysis and design requires a thorough understanding of the process as well as the techniques and deliverables of the profession.

Given these themes, the text emphasizes these approaches:

� A business rather than a technology perspective

� The role, responsibilities, and mind-set of the systems analyst as well as the systems project manager, rather than those of the programmer or business manager

� The methods and principles of systems development rather than the specific tools or tool-related skills of the field

Audience The book assumes that students have taken an introductory course on com- puter systems and have experience writing programs in at least one program- ming language. We review basic system principles for those students who have

xx Preface

not been exposed to the material on which systems development methods are based. We also assume that students have a solid background in computing lit- eracy and a general understanding of the core elements of a business, including basic terms associated with the production, marketing, finance, and accounting functions.

Organization The outline of the book follows the systems development life cycle:

� Part I, “Foundations for Systems Development,” gives an overview of systems development and previews the remainder of the book.

� Part II, “Systems Planning and Selection,” covers how to assess project feasibility and build the baseline project plan.

� Part III, “Systems Analysis,” covers determining system requirements, process modeling, and conceptual data modeling.

� Part IV, “Systems Design,” covers how to design the human interface and databases.

� Part V, “Systems Implementation and Operation,” covers system implementation, operation, closedown, and system maintenance.

� Appendix A, “Object-Oriented Analysis and Design,” and Appendix B, “Agile Methodologies,” can be skipped or treated as advanced topics at the end of the course.

Distinctive Features Here are some of the distinctive features of Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design, Fifth Edition:

  1. The grounding of systems development in the typical architecture for systems in modern organizations, including database management and Web-based systems.
  2. A clear linkage of all dimensions of systems description and modeling— process, decision, and data modeling—into a comprehensive and compatible set of systems analysis and design approaches. Such broad coverage is necessary for students to understand the advanced capabilities of many systems development methodologies and tools that automatically generate a large percentage of code from design specifications.
  3. Extensive coverage of oral and written communication skills (including systems documentation), project management, team management, and a variety of systems development and acquisition strategies (e.g., life cycle, prototyping, rapid application development, object orientation, joint application development, participatory design, and business process reengineering).
  4. Coverage of rules and principles of systems design, including decoupling, cohesion, modularity, and audits and controls.
  5. A discussion of systems development and implementation within the context of management of change, conversion strategies, and organizational factors in systems acceptance.
  6. Careful attention to human factors in systems design that emphasize usability in both character-based and graphical user interface situations.

Preface xxi

Pedagogical Features The pedagogical features of Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design, Fifth Edition, reinforce and apply the key content of the book.

SDLC Framework Although several conceptual processes can be used for guiding a systems de- velopment effort, the systems development life cycle (SDLC) is arguably the most widely applied method for designing contemporary information systems. We highlight four key SDLC steps (Figure P-1):

� Planning and selection

� Analysis

� Design

� Implementation and operation

xxii Preface

Phase 1: Systems Planning

and Selection

Phase 2: Systems Analysis

Phase 3: Systems Design

Phase 4: Systems Implementation and

Operation SDLC

FIGURE P-1 The systems development life cycle (SDLC): management is necessary throughout.

We use the SDLC to frame the part and chapter organization of our book. Most chapters open with an SDLC figure with various parts highlighted to show stu- dents how these chapters, and each step of the SDLC, systematically builds on the previous one.

Internet Coverage and Features Pine Valley Furniture WebStore A furniture company founded in 1980 has decided to explore electronic commerce as an avenue to increase its market share. Should this company sell its products online? How would a team of analysts work together to develop, propose, and implement a plan? Beginning in Chapter 4, we explore the step-by-step process.

Petrie’s Electronics This end-of-chapter fictional case illustrates how a national electronics retailer develops a Web-based customer loyalty program to build and strengthen customer relationships. The case first appears at the end of Chapter 2 and concludes at the end of Chapter 10.

Preface xxiii

Three Illustrative Fictional Cases Pine Valley Furniture (PVF) This case is introduced in Chapter 3 and revisited throughout the book. As key systems development life cycle concepts are presented, they are applied and illustrated. For example, in Chapter 3, we explore how PVF implements the purchasing fulfillment system, and in Chapter 4, we explore how PVF implements a customer tracking system. A margin icon identifies the location of the case segments. A case problem related to PVF is included in the end-of-chapter material.

Hoosier Burger (HB) This second illustrative case is introduced in Chapter 6 and revisited throughout the book. Hoosier Burger is a fictional fast- food restaurant in Bloomington, Indiana. We use this case to illustrate how analysts would develop and implement an automated food-ordering system. A margin icon identifies the location of these case segments. A case problem related to HB is included in the end-of-chapter material.

Petrie’s Electronics This fictional electronics retailer is used as an extended case at the end of each chapter, beginning with Chapter 2. Designed to bring the chapter concepts to life, this case illustrates how a company initiates, plans, models, designs, and implements a Web-based customer loyalty program. Discussion questions are included to promote critical thinking and class participation. Suggested solutions to the discussion questions are provided in the Instructor’s Manual.

End-of-Chapter Material We have developed an extensive selection of end-of-chapter material designed to accommodate various learning and teaching styles.

Key Points Review This section repeats the learning objectives that appear at the opening of the chapter and summarizes the key points related to the objectives.

Key Terms Checkpoint In this self-test feature, students match each key term in the chapter with its definition.

Review Questions These questions test students’ understanding of key concepts.

Problems and Exercises These exercises test students’ analytical skills and require them to apply key concepts.

Discussion Questions These questions promote class participation and discussion.

Case Problems These problems require students to apply the concepts of the chapter to fictional cases from various industries. The two illustrative cases from the chapters are revisited—Pine Valley Furniture and Hoosier Burger. Other cases are from various fields such as medicine, agriculture, and technology. Solutions are provided in the Instructor’s Manual.

Margin Term Definitions Each key term and its definition appear in the margin. A glossary of terms ap- pears at the back of the book.

References Located at the end of the text, references are organized by chapter and list more than 200 books and journals that can provide students and faculty with addi- tional coverage of topics.

The Supplement Package: www.pearsonhighered.com/valacich A comprehensive and flexible technology support package is available to enhance the teaching and learning experience. Instructor supplements are available at www.pearsonhighered.com/valacich:

� An Instructor’s Resource Manual provides chapter-by-chapter instructor objectives, teaching suggestions, and answers to all text review questions, problems, and exercises.

� The Test Item File and TestGen include a comprehensive set of more than 1,500 test questions in multiple-choice, true-false, and short- answer format; questions are ranked according to level of difficulty and referenced with page numbers and topic headings from the text. The Test Item File is available in Microsoft Word and as the computerized Prentice Hall TestGen software. The software is PC/Mac-compatible and preloaded with all of the Test Item File questions. You can manually or randomly view test questions and drag-and-drop to create a test. You can add or modify test-bank questions as needed.

� PowerPoint Presentation Slides feature lecture notes that highlight key text terms and concepts. Professors can customize the presentation by adding their own slides or by editing the existing ones.

� The Image Library is a collection of the text art organized by chapter. This collection includes all of the figures, tables, and screenshots (as permission allows) from the book. These images can be used to enhance class lectures and PowerPoint slides.

Materials for Your Online Course Our TestGens are converted for use in BlackBoard and WebCT. These conver- sions can be found on the Instructor’s Resource Center. Conversions to D2L or Angel can be requested through your local Pearson Sales Representative.

CourseSmart CourseSmart eTextbooks were developed for students looking to save on re- quired or recommended textbooks. Students simply select their eText by title or author and purchase immediate access to the content for the duration of the course using any major credit card. With a CourseSmart eText, students can search for specific keywords or page numbers, take notes online, print out read- ing assignments that incorporate lecture notes, and bookmark important pas- sages for later review. For more information or to purchase a CourseSmart eTextbook, visit www.coursesmart.com.

Acknowledgments The authors have been blessed by considerable assistance from many people on all aspects of preparation of this text and its supplements. We are, of course, re- sponsible for what eventually appears between the covers, but the insights, cor- rections, contributions, and proddings of others have greatly improved our manuscript. The people we recognize here all have a strong commitment to stu- dents, to the IS field, and to excellence. Their contributions have stimulated us, and frequently rejuvenated us during periods of waning energy for this project.

We would like to recognize the efforts of the many faculty and practicing sys- tems analysts who have been reviewers of the five editions of this text and its

xxiv Preface

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associated text, Modern Systems Analysis and Design. We have tried to deal with each reviewer comment, and although we did not always agree with spe- cific points (within the approach we wanted to take with this book), all review- ers made us stop and think carefully about what and how we were writing. The reviewers were:

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