quality management principles

quality management principles

the new location identified for the company’s new manufacturing plant. It will also explore, via a cause and effect diagram, the struggles most companies are faced with when implementing newly developed materials. A process map will also be prepared and evaluated based on the stand point of an Operations Manager.

The Theory of constraints (TOC) is a management pattern or model that views any manageable system as being limited in achieving more of its goals by a very small number of constraints. Constraints, by definition, are any limitations or restrictions faced when trying to complete any given task. It makes it impossible for everything to be completed. The TOC defines a set of tools that change agents cab use to manage constraints, thereby increasing profits. As identified in the article Theory of Constraints, the TOC provides a specific methodology for identifying and eliminating constraints, referred to as the Five Focusing Steps, which are as follows:

Identify – Identify the current constraint (the single part of the process that limits the rate at which the goal is achieved).This is the part of a system that constitutes its weakest link and can either be physical or policy.

Exploit – Obtain as much capability as possible from a constraining component without undergoing expensive changes or upgrades. Make quick improvements to the throughput of the constraint using existing resources (i.e. make the most of what you have).

Subordinate – Every other component of the system is then adjusted to a setting where the constraint would be allowed to operate at its maximum effectiveness. All other activities in the process should be aligned with and truly support the needs of the constraint.

Elevate – If the constraint still exists (i.e. it has not moved), consider what further actions can be taken to eliminate it from being the constraint. Normally, actions are continued at this step until the constraint has been “broken” (until it has moved somewhere else). In some cases, capital investment may be required.

Repeat – The Five Focusing Steps are a continuous improvement cycle. Therefore, once a constraint is resolved the next constraint should immediately be addressed. This step is a reminder to never become complacent – aggressively improve the current constraint…and then immediately move on to the next constraint.

Implementing TOC can result in substantial improvement without tying up a great deal of resources, with results after three months of effort. Therefore, it may be ideal for this practice to be applied to the manufacturing and assembly functions that occur daily at the Nissan the factory. It would aid with the fine-tuning of the existing processes by providing a means for them to directly identify the areas of weakness and ultimately work towards overall consumer, as well as employee, satisfaction with their products.

Total Quality Management (TQM) refers to management methods that are used to enhance the quality and productivity in business organizations. It is a comprehensive and structured approach to organizational management that seeks to improve the quality and services through ongoing refinements in response to continuous feedback (Rouse, M., n.d.). This management approach works horizontally across an organization, involving all departments and employees and extending backward and forward to include both suppliers and clients/customers. TQM can be summarized as a management system for a customer-focused organization that involves employees in its continual improvement. According to the article Total Quality Management (TQM), as published on www.inc.com, the basic elements of TQM, as expounded by the American Society for Quality Control, are:

· Policy Planning and Administration

· Product Design and Design Change Control

· Control of Purchased Material

· Production Quality Control

· User Contact and Field Performance

· Corrective Action

· Employee Selection, Training, and Motivation

The real root of the quality movement would be statistical quality control. This core method can be used to improve the latest line of product at Nissan Motor Company as it requires that quality standards are first set by establishing measurements for their products and defining what constitutes quality. The measures in this case may be any significant feature of the objects/product that can be tested to establish divergences from a base measurement which are still acceptable. The acceptable outcomes can be recorded on several shewcharts that will be updated constantly as samples will be continuously taken, measured, and recorded. Continuous process improvements entail the recognition of small, incremental gains toward the goal of total quality. Large gains are accomplished by small, sustainable improvements over long term (TQM, n.d.).

Wrong density

Machine running too fast

Failed inspection

Lack of resources

Lack of training

Wrong cooling temp

Machine not calibrated

Mechanical failure

Failure to implement materials





Based on this diagram, it can be easily identified where the company experienced major setbacks which in turn made it impossible for them to successfully implement the materials/products that have been newly developed. It indicates that there were delays experienced in every phase of the process, from inception to production. Special attention needs to be devoted to the entire process and each segment revisited with a fine tooth comb to ensure that they do not encounter any future delays.

From the perspective of an Operations Manager, this value map can be used to aid in identifying where there may be problems, inefficiencies and losses within complex systems. It will allow them to focus the direction for the lean transformation teams, front-line supervision and upper management towards continuous improvement. It may also serve as a dashboard to monitor and continuously improve the process (Mobley, R., 2013).

With Careful consideration given to the data that was provided, it was decided that the ideal location for the company’s new manufacturing plant would be Columbia, SC. If Nissan pays $50 a day for production of 75 units daily in South Carolina, they would spend less on Labour than at a Mexican plant where they would end up spending $80 per day for a production of 85 units per day. Also, although the Political Risk ranked higher than that in Mexico City, political risk associated with national, state, and local governments’ attitudes toward private and intellectual property, zoning, pollution, and employment stability may be in flux. Governmental positions at the time may not be lasting and management may find that these attitudes can be influenced by their own leadership (Heizer, J., Render, B., 2014).


Heizer, J., Render, B. (2014). Operations Management, 11th Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from http://mbsdirect.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780132863346/

Mobley, R. (2013, February 5). Best Practices for Using Value Stream Mapping as a Continuous Improvement Tool. Retrieved from http://www.industryweek.com/lean-six-sigma/best-practices-using-value-stream-mapping-continuous-improvement-tool

Rouse, M. (n.d.). Total Quality Management (TQM) definition. Retrieved from http://searchcio.techtarget.com/definition/Total-Quality-Management

Theory of Constraints. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.leanproduction.com/theory-of-constraints.html

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