I already have an annotated bibliography if that would help, the main subject is the relationship between the tone
poem by strauss and nietzsches philosophical text both entitled Also Sprach Zarathustra
Annotated Bibliography: by Chase Grimes/ Dr. Hallman/ MUS302-001/ Oct. 9th-20th, 2016
1. Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, Peter Gast, and Alfred Baeumler. Also Sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch Fu r Alle Und Keinen. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
A philosophical text written from the perspective of the prophet of Zoroastrianism; this novel is widely considered as Nietzsche s magnum opus. To myself and my future paper, this will be an effective tool for personal aural comparison of Strauss s piece Also Sprach Zarathustra to Nietzsche s text. Of all Nietzsche s works, this one is especially well known for the proclamation made towards the beginning of the text that God is Dead. This is a jumping off point for the idea of the will to power and ubermensch Nietzsche writes of in his previous book Beyond Good & Evil. These ideas directly relate to the attitude of the time in the late 1800 s and early 1900 s for if there is no god to limit us with moral/social/ethical commandments, who is to stop us These ideas allowed for people of the age to reach beyond the previous notions of boundaries inside of science, music, & art.
2. Adria n, Enrique Pe rez. Richard Strauss. Barcelona: Ediciones Peni nsula, 2000. Print.
The most recent biographical account of Richard Strauss; I can learn much about his personal life in this particular edition as opposed to former accounts. The original is written in Spanish, but there are translated versions of the text online. It is important to note that Ernest Newman, Max Steinitzer, Dominique Jameux, Claude Rostand, Michael Kennedy, and Tim Ashley have also published full length biographies on Strauss dating back until 1908. This will require some sifting.
3. Kennedy, Michael. Richard Strauss: Man, Musician, Enigma. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 1999. Print.
I like this text because of its attention to the mythos of Strauss and all of the contradictions that come with such a figure. Not only that, but this is also noted as the firt American edition of a complete text about Richard Strauss so I don t have to worry about translation issues. As the title suggests, the text is split into three facets dealing with Strauss personal discourse as well as his influence/influences musically, and talks in depth about his involvement in Hitler s Germany. Notably I have already learned from this text that although quite a bit of research has been put into figuring out where and what Strauss was doing at certain points in his early life, there is not a wellspring of information about the topic. This is where I begin to reference my seventh citation.
4. Youmans, Charles Dowell. Richard Strauss’s Orchestral Music and the German Intellectual Tradition: The Philosophical Roots of Musical Modernism. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2005. Print.
This text is unique in the way that its focus isn t just Strauss but also his contemporaries. This book focuses even more heavily on the origin of the philosophical movement of Modernism appearing in music. With this book I hope to begin to better understand ways I can both compare and contrast the difference between existentialist and modernist ideologies so that I can figure out their particular influences on composers and their intent behind their works.
5. Strauss, Richard, and Stefan Zweig. A Confidential Matter: The Letters of Richard Strauss and Stefan Zweig, 1931-1935. Berkeley: U of California, 1977. Print.
These now published letters allow for the reader to peer inside the stubborn yet fearful mind of the composer as he struggles with the ambivalence of acting as Reichsmusikkammer for the third Reich (aged 68) while also protecting his owl morals by staging rebellious productions of banned orchestrated pieces and protecting his Jewish friends and family. This resource is especially helpful for me as I have a hunch it will better reveal the superficiality of the connection between Strauss & Nietzsche in the popular eye.
6. Williamson, John. Strauss: Also Sprach Zarathustra. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993. Print.
The synopsis for this text is more than adequate in describing what information the book reveals. This Guide examines the intellectual background of the work and considers ways in which it has been received by composers and writers, notably Romain Rollard and Bartok. It also discusses the musical background of Liszt and Wagner which gave rise to the genre tone poem , and provides an analysis of several aspects of Strauss s musical language.
7. Strauss, Madeleine Rohla. “Strauss and the Family.” Deutsch. The Strauss Family, 01 Jan. 2014. Web. 20 Oct. 2016.
This website is run by the Strauss family; so I must note that this is a very good source for personal information on the composer, but it is also biased. Families will normally glorify a loved one, especially one that helps them remain socially relevant & wealthy. The Richard Strauss Publisher endeavours to take all reasonable measures that the information contained on the Richard-Strauss website is accurate, but cannot make claims, promises or guarantees about the accuracy, completeness or adequacy of the information.
8. Larkin, David. “Richard Strauss.” Nineteenth-Century Music Review 7.01 (2010): 159-61. Web.
One of the academic journal sources, this is an article with a general overview of Strauss s place in the nineteenth centuries musical scene. There is quite a bit of informational overlap with this and the other sources and I am suspect that the author himself has used the same texts as I have accumulated. This being said there is still valuable information in his personal opinions on the subject. I can use these as parallels or antonymic examples in accordance with my opinions.
9. Strauss, Richard. “Correspondence.” Letters to Hugo Von Hofmannsthal. 1901-1911. MS. N.p.
These two gentlemen struck their relationship in the pivotal year of 1900. Hugo, the prodigal poet he was, ended up becoming Strauss s personal librettist for his works Elektra (1909), Der Rosenkavalier (1911), Ariadne auf Naxos (1912, rev. 1916), Die Frau ohne Schatten (1919), Die gyptische Helena (1927), and Arabella (1933). Needless to say, the two shared a great friendship until Hugo s untimely death of stroke two days after his son s suicide in 1929.
10. Strauss, Richard. “Correspondence.” Letters to Gustav Mahler. 1888-1911. MS. N.p.
These letters are amazing to access as you can read how the influences of Mahler affected Strauss s works and the revere both held for each other. As Strauss was finding his own sound in music, he and Mahler had a falling out over political ideologies and eventually the two drifted apart from one another. This schism is a fantastic representation of the fracturing if the modernist genre that was happening in music at the same time.
11. Gregor, N. “Music, Memory, Emotion: Richard Strauss and The Legacies of War.” Music and Letters 96.1 (2015): 55-76. Web.
In this Journal the author takes a look at the influences the First and Second World War had on music, Strauss s in particular. This is the text I have found most helpful in understanding how Strauss s music was used for nationalist movements during both wars with and without his permission. This document also goes well into depth about multiple views on Strauss s political leanings and his hatred of Hitler s regime.
12. “Nietzsche and Music.” Nietzsche and Music. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2016.
This is a website that focuses on Nietzsche s personal relationship with Wagner, even providing sheet music and audio recordings of Nietzsche s own personal compositions. There is brief recourse on Nietzsche s musical criticisms as well. This resource is extremely useful in comparisons of the philosophers personal music and music that is supposedly inspired by his works. His close relationship with Wagner is also useful as Wagner is the composer that is most often associated with Strauss in the writings I ve found so far.
13. M/A. “Existentialism and Music /r/Existentialism.” Reddit. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2016.
This above source is an online forum thread frequented by musicologists, historians, theorists, and composers alike and is constantly kept updated to this moment. The comments from the fellow academics are already helping me in separating a purely existential work from one that is modern. This is increasingly difficult as I am learning that most existentialist pieces were composed in the modern period and fall under the same umbrella of classification. There is actually a conversation happening as I am writing this about whether or not Nietzsche s own musical works were even existential, or if they were just pale forms of mimicry in rookie attempt to flatter and impress his good friend at the time, Richard Wagner.
14. Albright, Daniel. Untwisting the Serpent: Modernism in Music, Literature, and Other Arts. Chicago, Ill: U of Chicago, 2000. Print.
This book addresses the influences that Mahler, Strauss, and Debussy had on music in order to bring in the modern period in music. This book describes the move into post tonality Schoenberg brings to the table as well as Stravinsky s rejection of typical rhythm. This text is useful in distinguishing the differences in the existentialist works that were influential at the very same time while having discernable differences. This being said some composers and artists in the modern period incorporated bits and pieces of certain philosophical ideas but typically rejected describing themselves by only one ideology at a time.
15. Dahlhaus, Carl. Nineteenth-century Music. Berkeley: U of California, 1989. Print.
Mr. Dahlhaus is widely considered to be the optimal critic of 19th century music and has already bequeathed to me the breakaway idea, referencing Strauss s opening lines of Don Juan as the beginning of modernist sounds in music. This is helpful to my studies for this paper as he also confirms my assumptions about Schopenhauer having a greater influence on Strauss than Nietzsche ever did. Quoting that Strauss knew nothing of Nietzsche s works except to quote them and reference them as to appease his overlings in the service of the Third Reich.