What global spatial patterns are apparent?

What global spatial patterns are apparent?

Estimate the average solar insolation that Location C (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador) received in June:

A. Near 0 W/m2

B. Near 275 W/m2

C. Near 400 W/m2

D. Near 550 W/m2

Question 20: Estimate the amount of solar insolation Location C (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador) received in December:

A. Near 0 W/m2

B. Near 275 W/m2

C. Near 400 W/m2

D. Near 550 W/m2

Question 21: Which of the following accounts for the trends in average solar insolation at Location C (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador) in June and December? (Check all that apply).

A. There is relatively minor differences in sun angle

B. There is relatively minor differences in daylight hours

C. Location C is close to the Equator (low latitude)

D. Location C is far from subsolar point in December

Question 22: Which of the following is true about how latitude and calendar date affect where and how much sunlight falls on the Earthfs surface in a given year? (Check all that apply).

A. The higher the latitude the greater the seasonal difference in daylight hours

B. Higher southern latitudes receive more daylight hours around the June solstice.

C. Higher northern latitudes receive more daylight hours around the June solstice.

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D. The lower the latitude the greater the seasonal difference in daylight hours

Collapse and uncheck GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE.

FLOW OF SOLAR RADIATION

When energy from the Sun reaches the Earthfs atmosphere, it flows along various paths, with some energy absorbed by the atmosphere, some reflected back into space and some striking the Earthfs surface. These various paths are part of the heat transfer mechanism that distributes heat across the globe. A more detailed breakdown of what happens is shown in the solar radiation animation. To note, the values shown in the animation are for the Earth as a whole.

Select and click FLOW OF SOLAR RADIATION.

Question 23: What percent of the Sunfs energy entering the Earthfs atmosphere is absorbed directly by the atmosphere?

A. 18%

B. 25%

C. 31%

D. 69%

Question 24: What percent of the Sunfs energy (shortwave radiation) entering the Earthfs atmosphere is absorbed by Earth is some way (clouds, water, Earthfs surface)?

A. 18%

B. 25%

C. 31%

D. 69%

Question 25: What accounts for the most solar radiation being reflected back into space?

A. Dust particles

B. Ozone

C. Clouds

D. Aerosols

Question 26: Why does incoming shortwave radiation equal outgoing longwave radiation? (Check all that apply).

A. To keep the Earthfs average temperature more or less constant

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B. The laws of physics require incoming and outgoing radiation to equal

C. It maintains the thickness of the atmosphere and variability in the length of day

D. Without a balanced radiation budget, the Earth will become increasingly warmer or cooler

Question 27: The values in the animation are for the Earth as a whole, however, the flow of energy is not even across the Earthfs surface. Speculate how net radiation differs at the Equator compared to the Poles. (Check all that apply).

A. Net radiation is more or less constant near the Equator, but varies at the Poles

B. Net radiation is more or less constant near the Poles, but varies at the Equator

C. During the June Solstice, net radiation is greater at the North Pole than the Equator

D. During the December Solstice, net radiation is greater at the North Pole than the Equator

Uncheck the FLOW OF SOLAR RADIATION folder.

ALBEDO

Expand the ALBEDO folder. Double-click and select Albedo in September. To close the citation, click the X in the top right corner of the window.

Albedo is the portion of solar energy (shortwave radiation) that is reflected from Earthfs surface back into space. Albedo is calculated as the relative amount (ratio) of reflected sunlight (reflected shortwave radiation) to the total amount of sunlight (incident shortwave radiation). Clouds and bright (light-colored) surfaces have higher albedo rates than dark colored surfaces like asphalt, roads and forests.

This map shows the average global albedo received in September. The legend at the top shows the proportion of sunlight reflected from Earthfs surface, which ranges from no albedo at 0.0 (dark blue) to a high albedo at 0.9 (light blues to white). Areas of no data are denoted as black or no color. Use this map layer to answer the following questions.

Double-click and select Location D; then, double-click and select Location E.

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Question 28 Is the albedo relatively high or relatively low in the boreal forests of Canada and Norway in September?

A. The albedo is relatively high in both locations

B. The albedo is relatively low in both locations

C. The albedo is high in northern Canada and low in Norway

D. The albedo is low in northern Canada and high in Norway

Double-click and select Location F.

Question 29: Is the albedo relatively high or relatively low in the Sahara Desert region of Northern Africa in September?

A. The albedo over the Sahara Desert is relatively low

B. The albedo over the Sahara Desert is relatively high

C. There is no albedo over the Sahara Desert because sand does not reflect sunlight

D. The albedo over the Sahara Desert is only very high (near 0.9) or very low (0.0)

Double-click and select Location G.

Question 30: Is the albedo relatively high or relatively low over the majority of Greenland in September?

A. The albedo over Greenland is relatively low except near the coast

B. The albedo over Greenland is relatively high except near the coast

C. There is no albedo over Greenland except near the coast

D. There is no albedo over Greenland because ice and snow do not reflect sunlight

Seasonality (time of the year) plays an important role in global albedo. Letfs compare the September albedo rates to February albedo rates of these locations.

Select and double-click Albedo in February. To close the citation, click the X in the top right corner of the window. To alternate between Albedo in September and Albedo in February, check and uncheck one of the files to see the differences in the two map overlays.

Double-click Location D; then, double-click Location E.

Question 31: For northern Canada and Norway, is the albedo in February higher or lower when compared to the albedo in September?

A. The albedo is higher in February for both locations

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B. The albedo is lower in February for both locations

C. The albedo is higher in northern Canada and lower in Norway

D. The albedo is lower in northern Canada and higher in Norway

Double-click Location F.

Question 32: For the Sahara Desert region of Northern Africa, is the albedo higher or lower in February when compared to the albedo in September?

A. The albedo is lower in February

B. The albedo is higher in February

C. The albedo is relatively the same in February and September

D. There is no albedo over the Sahara Desert because sand does not reflect sunlight

Double-click Location G.

Question 33: For Greenland, is the albedo higher or lower in February when compared to the albedo in September?

A. The albedo is lower in February

B. The albedo is higher in February

C. The albedo is relatively the same in February and September

D. There is no albedo over Greenland because ice and snow do not reflect sunlight

Collapse and uncheck the ALBEDO folder.

NET RADIATION

Net radiation, sometimes called net flux, is the difference between incoming solar radiation absorbed by the Earthfs surface and the radiation reflected back into space. In other words, net radiation is the energy available to Earth at the Earthfs surface. Some places absorb more energy than reflect, while other places on Earth reflect more energy than absorb. Factors that affect the net radiation of a place include albedo, latitude and Sun angle, atmospheric conditions (like clouds and dust), and the time of year. As a result, some areas will have a seasonal or annual energy surplus with a positive net radiation (more energy absorbed than reflected) while other areas will have a seasonal or annual energy deficit with a negative net radiation (more energy reflected than absorbed). Fortunately, the Earth has a global energy budget at approximately equilibrium, with a global net radiation at approximately zero (that is, global incoming energy equals global outgoing energy).

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Expand the NET RADIATION folder.

Double-click and select Net Radiation in January.

The legend at the top shows the global net radiation for January, which ranges from 280 W/m2 to -280 W/m2. Hence, an orange or red color indicates a greater (positive) net radiation, while a green or blue color indicates a lower (negative) net radiation.

Question 34: What global spatial patterns are apparent? (Check all that apply).

A. Net radiation is higher in the Southern Hemisphere

B. Net radiation is higher in the Northern Hemisphere

C. Net radiation is lower in the Southern Hemisphere

D. Net radiation is lower in the Northern Hemisphere

Question 35: How does the net radiation of oceans versus land differ in Northern Hemisphere compared the Southern Hemisphere in January? (Check all that apply).

A. The net radiation is relatively higher in the oceans than on land in the Northern Hemisphere

B. The net radiation is relatively lower in the oceans than on land in the Northern Hemisphere

C. The net radiation is relatively higher in the oceans than on land in the Southern Hemisphere

D. The net radiation is relatively lower in the oceans than on land in the Southern Hemisphere

Question 36: What factors contribute to the North Pole region having the highest net radiation loss in January? (Check all that apply).

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