Why have there been no great women artists in art history?

Why have there been no great women artists in art history?

Your answer should be in an essay format with an introductory paragraph that includes your thesis, at least two body paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph. Remember that a thesis is an argument or a main claim, therefore, your essay needs to have a clear position. This means that for many of you, your thesis will be the answer to the question: why have there been no great women artists. You can refer to your textbook and of course Nochlin’s essay as reference material. Do not forget to use MLA in-text citation style within your essay.

Bio Primary Post 3/5/19 300 word min 100 min peer response

Please read the articles listed below on testing the fetal DNA in the blood of the pregnant mother. This is not conventional amnioscentesis or chorionic sampling. Instead, fetal cells and DNA can be found in the mother’s blood circulation. This blood tests do not harm the baby in utero.

News summary on blood test for Down’s syndrom (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. in Nature magazine discussing the article by Fan et al in PNAS.
Rearch article on fetal chromosomal analysis by Fan et al. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). Genetic testing explained by Sequenom (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., the company behind these blood testing of chromosomal DNA.

Remember, you are not required to discuss the articles (although I strongly encourage you to do so), but you are required to read at least the news/summary article, as you may see questions related to them on the exams. Please also make sure to create one original post and respond to someone else’s post for a total of two posts per week to receive full credit.

Peer Response:

“Testing the fetal DNA in the blood of the pregnant mother is something new that Sequenom, a biotechnology company based in San Diego, California, is developing. By doing this, fetal cells and DNA can now be found in the mother’s blood circulation. This is helpful because the blood tests do not harm the baby in utero. Other procedures like amniocentesis or the karyotyping of fetal cells have proven to be of significant risks to both the fetus and the mother. These are used mainly to determine the sex of the fetus and to test for certain sex-linked genetic diseases like down syndrome. The company has tested the method in more than 400 patients, and plans to test many more in the future. According to the article, “Blood test for Down’s syndrome unveiled”, Sequenom’s method relies on sifting through common sequence differences from the population to find markers that will distinguish chromosomes inherited from the mother from those inherited from the father.

These article have made me optimistic for the future cures and inventions that will facilitate many lives. If there is an easier and more convenient way to do things, so be it!”

Problem Set pt 1 3/6/19

  1. Given the karyotype shown at right (see textbook for figure), is this a male or a female? Normal or abnormal? What would the phenotype of this individual be?
  2. What are the two most commonly used methods of prenatal diagnosis? Which technique can be performed earlier, and why is this an advantage?
  3. Discuss the following sets of terms:

a) trisomy and triploidy,

b) aneuploidy and polyploidy.

  1. Describe the process of non-disjunction and explain when it takes place during cell division.
  2. What is the genetic basis and phenotype for each of the following disorders:

a) Edwards syndrome

b) Patau syndrome

c) Klinefelter syndrome

d) Down syndrome.

Problem Set pt 2. 3/7/19

  1. Describe, from fertilization, the major pathways of normal male sex development. Include the stages in which genetic sex, gonadal sex and phenotypic sex are determined.
  2. Discuss whether the following individuals (1) have male or female gonads, (2) are phenotypically male or female (Wolffian or Muellerian ducts. External genitalia) and (3) are sterile or fertile.

a) XY, homozygous for a recessive mutation in the testosterone biosynthetic pathway, producing no testosterone

b) XX, heterozygous for a dominant mutation in the testosterone biosynthetic pathway, which causes continuous production of testosterone

  1. Calico cats are almost invariably female. Why? (Hint: explain genotype and phenotype of calico females)
  2. How many Barr bodies would the following individuals have?

a) normal male

b) normal female

c) Klinefelter male

d) Turner female

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